Members’ Publications

Changes in extremely hot days under stabilized 1.5 and 2.0°C global warming scenarios as simulated by the HAPPI multi-model ensemble

Wehner M., Stone D., Mitchell D., Shiogama H., Fischer E., Graff L. S., Kharin V. V., Lierhammer L., Sanderson B., Krishnan H.
Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 299-311

The half a degree additional warming, prognosis and projected impacts (HAPPI) experimental protocol provides a multi-model database to compare the effects of stabilizing anthropogenic global warming of 1.5°C over preindustrial levels to 2.0°C over these levels. The HAPPI experiment is based upon large ensembles of global atmospheric models forced by sea surface temperature and sea ice concentrations plausible for these stabilization levels. This paper examines changes in extremes of high temperatures averaged over three consecutive days. Changes in this measure of extreme temperature are also compared to changes in hot season temperatures. We find that over land this measure of extreme high temperature increases from about 0.5 to 1.5°C over present-day values in the 1.5°C stabilization scenario, depending on location and model. We further find an additional 0.25 to 1.0°C increase in extreme high temperatures over land in the 2.0°C stabilization scenario. Results from the HAPPI models are consistent with similar results from the one available fully coupled climate model. However, a complicating factor in interpreting extreme temperature changes across the HAPPI models is their diversity of aerosol forcing changes.